Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Beefsteak plant, (Perilla frutescens), a Growing Control Problem

Beefsteak plant flower
               Natural areas, parks and woods of the Lower Chesapeake Bay have yet another early detection of a non indigenous, alien species.  Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton 1894, [synonyms: Ocimum frutescens L.; Perilla ocymoides L.] beefsteak plant, has been found to be spreading beyond Maryland's cultivated, managed gardens and landscapes. Escaped from gardens in New York as early as 1898, it was reported as a weed of wastelands.[1]  Bernard McMahon, the great American horticulturalist, was selling Perilla seed as early as 1804.[2] Marc Imlay, the great weed warrior, has been weeding Perilla from parks in Maryland since 1998.[3]

               Beefsteak plant also known as Chinese basil; purple or perilla mint, is described on the Missori Botanical Garden website as

"an upright, bushy annual that is native from the Himalayas to Southeast Asia. It is related to coleus and basil. It has become a very popular foliage annual and salad herb plant. It grows to 1-3’ (less frequently to 4’) tall. Wrinkled, serrate, broad ovate, medium green leaves (to 4” long) are sometimes tinged with purple. Leaves are aromatic. Two-lipped nettle-like white flowers in spike-like inflorescences (to 4”) bloom at the stem tips in late summer and fall (August – October). Flowers are not particularly showy. This plant has escaped gardens and naturalized throughout many areas of the eastern and central U. S., including central and southern Missouri. Fresh leaves are used in Oriental cooking, salads, soups and as garnishes. Deep red leaves of some perilla varieties purportedly resemble the color of uncooked beef, hence the common name."

USDA Plants - spread of Purilla frutescens
               Perilla frutescens is reported as invasive in DC, IL, MD, MO, PA, TN, VA,
and WV and occurring in all states east of Colorado, parts of Canada, as well as the State of Washington on the west coast (excluding, for now, the Dakotas). The Forest Service (USDA) is aware that beefsteak plant is often planted as showy ornamentals,  that

"may readily escape cultivation, spreading to disturbed areas where they disrupt native ecosystems. The species has toxic characteristics and very few predators. It is ordinarily avoided by cattle and has been implicated in cattle poisoning. Plants are most toxic if cut and dried for hay late in the summer, during seed production. One reason for beefsteak plants’ survival in pastures is that cattle avoid it. Sold as a salad plant for its dark purple foliage, this member of the mint family is extremely invasive by wind-borne seeds."[4]

Chinese basil or perilla mint - Perilla frutescens
               Purdue Extension Service website control recommendations include "...pulling or digging it up, mowing it, or using herbicides. 2,4-D, Milestone®, Forefront®, Weedmaster®, and glyphosate."  Dr. Imlay, however, notes an ominous sign that control of Perilla frutescens, as well as control of Japanese stiltgrass, Microsteigum virineum Camus 1921[1922], is becoming much more difficult. Imlay told me that he and his volunteers removed 100% of the beefsteak plants by hand pulling until 2010 when many newly emergent patches in open space and lightly shaded areas emerged. He also noted that  existing patches of Perilla frutescens  no longer declined by ~80 % each year in 'weeded'  sections of the park as they had in previous years. 

               "In 2010," Imlay said, " I switched to herbicide treatment and sprayed 20 gallons. A great reduction occurred in 2011 and I only had to spray 2.2 gallons along with modest hand pulling. However, in 2012 many new patches appeared, all of which were treated or hand pulled. But this year many, many new and expanded patches have appeared increasing the coverage of beefsteak plant from about 1/10 th acre to about 1/2 acre.  As of September 6 we have already sprayed 60 gallons and only sprayed about half of the beefsteak plant."

         While preventing and introduction is the first line of defense, even the best prevention efforts will not stop all harmful invasive species. In the case of beefsteak plant, however, preventing its introduction has been off the table for over 200 years. However using the tools of IPM (Integrated Pest Management), such as early detection and rapid response (EDRR), at a local level can greatly support effective management and even in some cases elimination. EDRR efforts increase the likelihood that invasions that can lead to establishment and spread of harmful species will be halted and eradicated. Once a species becomes widely established in an ecosystem, the only action possible is the partial mitigation of negative impacts. Based on the work of the ISAC/NISC EDRR Subcommittee, NISC has approved Guidelines for Early Detection and Rapid Response. 

Additional References
Ali, S.I., Raven, P.H. & Hoch, P., 2012. Flora of Pakistan Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. tropicos.org Flora of Pakistan. Available at: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200019964 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Brenner, D.M., 1993. Perilla: Botany, uses and genetic resources. In J. Janick & J. E. Simon, eds. New Crops. New York, NY USA: John. Wiley & sons, inc., pp. 322–328. Available at: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1993/v2-322.html.
Britton, N.L., 1894. List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without Cultivation in Northeastern North America. Committee of the Botanical Club American Association for the Advancement of Science, ed. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 5(18), p.277. Available at: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/31876217 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Britton, N.L. & Brown, A., 1898. An illustrated flora of the northern United States: Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian, C. Scribner’s Sons. Available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=uHdXAAAAMAAJ.
Brouillet, L., Coursol;, F. & Favreau, M., 2012. VASCAN. Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN). Available at: http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/taxon/6430 [Accessed April 3, 2012].
Burton, R.H., 1933. Perilla frutescens; North America; USA; Connecticut; Middlesex County. Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Available at: http://peabody.research.yale.edu/cgi-bin/Query.Ledger?LE=bot&ID=irn 1385009&SU=0 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Chen, J. et al., 1997. Plant Distribution and Diversity Across an Ozark Landscape, Available at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nc227/gtr_nc227_045.pdf.
Douce, G.K. et al., 2005. Invasive.org: a Web-based Image Archive and Database System Focused on North American Exotic and Invasive Species. In K. W. Gottschalk, ed. Proceedings, XV U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2004. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.
Dӧnmez, A.A., 2002. Perilla: a New Genus for Turkey. Turk J Bot, 26, pp.281–283. Available at: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/issues/bot-02-26-4/bot-26-4-9-0109-1.pdf.
Eames, E.H., 1916. Perilla frutescens; North America; USA; Connecticut; Fairfield County. Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Available at: http://peabody.research.yale.edu/cgi-bin/Query.Ledger?LE=bot&ID=irn 1385010&SU=0 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Everest, J.W., Powe Jr., T.A. & Freeman, J.D., 2006. Poisonous Plants of the Southeastern United States, Available at: http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-0975/ANR-0975.pdf.
Forest Health Staff, 2005. Beefsteak Plant: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.
GBIF ed., 2012. GBIF. In Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Available at: http://data.gbif.org/search/Perilla/India [Accessed April 4, 2012].
Harger, E.B., 1901. Perilla frutescens; North America; USA; Connecticut; New Haven County. Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Available at: http://peabody.research.yale.edu/cgi-bin/Query.Ledger?LE=bot&ID=irn 1379606&SU=0 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Honda, G. et al., 1994. Genetic control of geranial formation in Perilla frutescens. Biochemical Genetics, 32(5-6), pp.155–159.
Hwang, L.S., 1997. Anthocyanins from Perilla. In H.-C. Yu, K. Kosuna, & M. Haga, eds. Perilla; the genus Perilla. Harwood Academy Publishers, p. 171.
Kim, K.-H. et al., 2004. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Perilla frutescens. Plant Cell Reports, 23(6), pp.386–390.
Kral, R. et al., 2012. Perilla frutescens. Alabama Plant Atlas. Available at: http://www.floraofalabama.org/Plant.aspx?id=2435 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Lee, H.R. et al., 1995. Foraging activities and pollination efficacies of the pollinators on the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), the perilla (Perilla frutescens var. japonica) and the sesame (Sesamum orientale). Korean Journal of Agriculture, 10(2), pp.117–122.
Li, X. & Hedge, I.C., 2008. Flora of China Perilla frutescens (Linnaeus) Britton. eFloras.org, 7. Available at: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200019964 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Masumoto, N. & Ito, M., 2010. Germination rates of perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton) mericarps stored at 4 degrees C for 1-20 years. Journal of natural medicines, 64(3), pp.378–382.
Negi, V.S. et al., 2011. Perilla frutescens in Transition: a medicinal and oil yielding plant need instant conservation, a case study from Central Himalaya, India. Environ. We Int. J. Sci. Tech., 6, pp.193–200. Available at: http://www.ewijst.org/issues/vol_6/ewijst060433059.pdf.
Press, J.R., Shrestha, K.K. & Sutton, D.A., 2000. Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. eFloras.org Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. Available at: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=110&taxon_id=200019964 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
Ragazinskiene, O. et al., 2006. The influence of meteorological factors on growth and vegetation process of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton in Lithuania. Medicina Kaunas Lithuania, 42(8), pp.667–672.
Roecklein, J.C. & Leung, P., 1987. A Profile of Economic Plants, New Brunswixk, New Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers.
Schnitzler, Schirrmacher, W.H.G. & Grassmann, J., 2006. Perilla frutescens: A vegetable and herb for a healthy diet M. L. Chadha, G. Kuo, & C. L. L. Gowda, eds. 1st International Conference on Indigenous Vegetables and Legumes Prospectus for Fighting Poverty Hunger and Malnutrition, (752), pp.143–146.
Steckel, L. & Rhodes, N., Perilla Mint. Available at: https://utextension.tennessee.edu/publications/Documents/W135.pdf.
UMass Extension, Growing Tips 22: Annuals for the Shade. Available at: http://extension.umass.edu/floriculture/sites/floriculture/files/fact-sheets/retail-factsheets/FS22AnnualsForShade.pdf.
USDA ARS, 2012. GRIN. National Genetic Resources Program. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?27364 [Accessed April 2, 2012].
USDA ARS GRIN, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?316751 [Accessed March 5, 2012].
USDA ARS National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, M., USDA ARS GRIN & USDA ARS, 2012. Taxon: Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière. Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?27364 [Accessed March 5, 2012].
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Wada, K.C., Kondo, H. & Takeno, K., 2010. Obligatory short-day plant, Perilla frutescens var. crispa can flower in response to low-intensity light stress under long-day conditions. Physiologia Plantarum, 138(3), pp.339–345.
Yu, H.-C., Kosuna, K. & Haga, M. eds., 1997. Perilla: the genus Perilla, Harwood Academic Publishers.
Zheng, H. et al., 2006. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies. Biological Control, 1(March), p.160. Available at: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20067203583.html.

Perilla frutescens Photographer: John D. Byrd
Source: Mississippi State University

ppi State University


[1] Britton, N. L. & Brown, A., 1898. An illustrated flora of the northern United States: Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian, C. Scribner’s Sons.  

[2] M'Mahon, B., 1804. Seed Catalogue. in:  Special Collections of USDA ARS NAL, Beltsville, Maryland.

[3] Imlay, M., 2013. 'Spray log: Swann Park, Maryland October 1998'. personal communication with John Peter Thompson
               see also
Kobell, R., April 30, 2012. Weed warrior Marc Imlay leads the battle to conquer invading plants. Bay Journal. accessed Sept 18, 2013 ] http://www.bayjournal.com/article/weed_warrior_marc_imlay_leads_the_battle_to_conquer_invading_plants

[4]"Weed of the Week" http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/invasive_plants/weeds/beefsteak-plant.pdf  Produced by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Staff, Newtown Square, PA. WOW 01-23-05 Invasive Plants website: http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/invasive_plants

1 comment:

Eric Parker said...

Thaks to share this blog information about beef steak plant. I have great experiance to take knowledge about this plant use for growing control problem.Thanks again to share this.